Bridging Disciplinary Boundaries (January 11 - 14, 2007)
Methods: Community-recruited gamblers (i.e., gambled >5 times lifetime) with complete data (n=146; mean age=47 yrs.; SD=18; range=18-79yrs; 55% female; 32% minority; 69% employed; 30% married; 36% <$5K annually; 58% HS graduate or less) were selected for a clinician-administered telephone interview (randomly occurring one-week before or after two non-clinician structured interviews; n=315) as a part of two NIDA-funded psychometric studies of the Computerized-Gambling Assessment Module (C-GAM)©. Moreover, we used the computerized SCID-II to assess for PD. Chi-square analyses determined significant associations of DSM-IV Personality Disorders (No PD n=80%; PD=20%) by DSM-IV Gambling Status (i.e., Recreational n=44%; Problem n=41%; Pathological n=15%). Logistic regression estimated the probability of PG/PGD in the presence of PD after controlling for socio-demographics and substance abuse/dependence. We further explored PD subtypes and game-specific disorders in this sample.
Results: Gambling status was associated with PD when controlling for socio-demographic variables and substance use disorders (Wald χ2=4.789, df=1, p=0.01, OR=2.78). There were also significant associations between PG/PGD and substance abuse/dependence (Wald χ2=4.046, df=1, p=0.044, OR=2.17), minority status (Wald χ2=8.435, df=1, p=0.003, OR=3.04) and education level (Wald χ2=6.56, df=7, p=0.01, OR=.64). Descriptively, in terms of PD subtypes, those with PGD comorbidity, were commonly diagnosed with Schizoid, Borderline and Antisocial Personality disorders. In terms of game-specific disorders, those with comorbid PD, met PGD criteria for slot machines, lotteries, card games and casino games.
Implications: The results of these analyses support existing literature that PD is associated with PG/PGD. Additional associations included substance abuse/dependence, as well as minority status and education. This information is useful to clinicians in screening and treatment planning for those with PD, particularly for those at increased risk due to socio-demographic factors and substance use disorder. We will discuss implications of these findings for PG/PGD theory development in the context of co-occurring disorders.