Workplace Factors & Work-Family Conflict: A Comparative Study
Purpose: To date, very few studies have examined work- family conflict among immigrant workers. As a first step towards understanding whether the job demands, social support and work-family conflict experiences are similar or different between immigrant and native workers; and also to examine job demands and social support at work that contribute towards the experiences of work-family conflict among the two working populations, the following research questions were answered:
(i) Are there differences between immigrant and native workers experiences of job demands, social support at work, and work-family conflict?
(ii) Which of the job demands and social support at work are associated with work-family conflict among the two groups in the U.S.?
Methods: Data from NSCW (2002) was used to address this study’s research questions. Telephone interviews were conducted using random digit dialing method. A sample of 157 immigrant and 165 native workers was used in this study. Bivariate analyses were used to determine differences between the two groups and stepwise multiple regressions via backward elimination method were used to determine job demands and social support associated with work-family conflict.
Results: Results suggest that of the five job demands included in the model two of the job demands are experienced significantly different between immigrant and native workers and there is no difference in the experiences of social support. Among immigrant workers marital status, co-worker social support, work load pressure, and working long hours were associated with time-based work-family conflict; while among native workers parental status, income, work-load pressure, learning requirement, total hours worked, and working rotating/split shift working flexible variable shift with no set hours was significantly associated with time-based work family conflict. Marital status, supervisor social support, work load pressure , total hours worked and learning requirement were significantly associated with strain-based work-family conflict among immigrant workers and among native workers age, parental status, supervisor social support, work load pressure, learning requirement, total hours worked, work-role ambiguity and working rotating or split shift was significantly associated with strain-based work-family conflict.
Conclusions and Implications: Results indicate that the predictors of time-based and strain based work-family conflict are different for the two populations. This finding has implications for practice as well as policy. Organizational practices and policies that support unique needs of this population have been recognized.