An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale with Puerto Rican Women
Methods: Data were collected using a cross-sectional survey design. The CES scale was administered in English (47.7%) and Spanish (52.3%) as part of a stress and coping study. A convenience community dwelling sample of adult Puerto Rican women (N= 130) was recruited through referrals, church officials and community agencies and advocates. Most participants were born in Puerto Rico (70%). Their mean age was 33.6, 37.8% had not completed high school, and 70.16% had an annual household income below $24,999.
Exploratory factor analysis identified and extracted a likely factor structure. The extraction method used was the Principle Factors Analysis method. The number of factors retained was decided based on past empirical findings, an examination of the produced eigen values, and a visual scree test. The retained factors were then rotated to obtain interpretable factor loadings using oblique Promax rotation to allow for correlated factors. The factor loadings for each item were examined and assigned to the factor on which they had the largest loading. Items that did not meet a cutoff point (≤.4) were not retained in the final structure.
Results: The exploratory factor analysis revealed a reduced 20-item form of the CSE scale with a three factor underlying structure similar to Chesney et al.: use problem-focused coping, stop unpleasant emotions and thoughts, and get support from friends and family. A slightly different structure emerged as defined by the differences in factor loadings for the items. These include five rather than six for the problem-focused coping subscale, nine rather than four for the emotional coping subscale, and five rather than three for the support from friends and familysubscale.
Implications: The findings suggest that more items are needed to capture coping self-efficacy among Puerto Rican women. This could be a function of culturally-specific self-efficacy beliefs which tend to be more collectivistic than individualistic. Future studies could examine not only the psychometric properties of this scale but also take into account cultural characteristic for a given ethnic group. Assessing coping self-efficacy is essential for social workers in both research and clinical contexts.