Parenting Interventions Implementation Science: How Delivery Format Impacts the Parenting Wisely Program
Methods: A sample of 144 low-income, rural parents participated in the study. The majority of the sample was female (77.08%) and the average age of participants was 40 years. The sample was exceptionally racially diverse, consisting of 53% Native American, 27% African American, 10% Hispanic, 8% White, and 2% multiracial. Five subscales from the McMaster Family Assessment Device (i.e., problem solving, family roles, affective involvement, behavior control, and general family functioning) were used to measure family processes. In addition, parenting measures (i.e., parenting sense of competence, parenting self-efficacy, and parent-adolescent conflict) and adolescent behavior measures (i.e., violent behavior and externalizing behavior) were collected. A series of paired-sample t-tests were conducted to measure mean differences between pretest and posttest for each delivery format.
Results: Findings showed statistically significant changes between pretest and posttest in family problem-solving, family roles, family involvement, parenting self-efficacy, parenting sense of competence, and decreased adolescent violent behavior. Integrating adolescents in program delivery was more effective for family roles, adolescent violent behavior, externalizing problems, and parent-child conflict, but not for other outcomes. Delivery in a group setting over 5-weeks was more effective than either online delivery or as a 1- or 2-day group workshop.
Conclusions/Implications: The current study makes an important contribution to implementation science literature as it explores the effectiveness of PW when implemented with differing delivery formats, which is a previously unstudied influence on program effectiveness. The current study also contributes to scholarship on PW by testing the intervention effects on adolescent aggressive behavior and violence.