Methods: Data were used from the online Survey of Police-Public Encounters (SPPE). Adult community residents were recruited from Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. (N = 1,615). Participants were 18 years or older who resided within the target cities. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS version 24. Controlling for age, gender, psychological distress, suicidal ideation, and interpersonal violence exposure as potential confounding variables, logistic regression was used to test the associations between secondary exposure to gun violence fatality and the four subtypes of psychosis-like experiences within each racial/ethnic group.
Results: Fifty seven percent of the participants identified as White, 31% as Black/African American, and 12% as Latinx/Hispanic. Preliminary findings revealed that Black respondents with gun violence exposure had significantly higher odds of endorsing delusional mood-like experiences when compared to Black respondents without gun violence exposure (OR=2.09, CI=1.15-3.78, p<0.05). Latinx/Hispanic respondents who were exposed to gun violence were almost 10 times more likely to endorse hallucination-like experiences compared to Latinx/Hispanics respondents not exposed (OR= 9.78, CI=1.35-65.68, p<0.05 ). Additionally, White respondents exposed to to gun violence were almost three times more likely to endorse hallucination-like experiences (OR= 2.70, CI=1.63 – 4.50, p<0.05 ) and 3.5 times more likely to endorse delusional mood-like experiences (OR= 3.57, CI=1.23 – 10.38, p<0.05 ) compared to White respondents without such exposure.
Conclusions and Implications: Results suggest unique within-group experiences with vicarious gun violence exposure and psychotic experiences among Black/African Americans, Latinx/Hispanic, and White adults. Implications of these findings highlight the need for clinical interventions that focus on the dynamic relationship between gun violence fatality exposure and psychosis-like experiences that are situated within a sociocultural context of race and mental health.