Abstract: (WITHDRAWN) Ethnic-Racial Socialization Among Latinx Families: A Systematic Review of the Literature (Society for Social Work and Research 25th Annual Conference - Social Work Science for Social Change)

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535P (WITHDRAWN) Ethnic-Racial Socialization Among Latinx Families: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Tuesday, January 19, 2021
* noted as presenting author
Cecilia Ayon, PhD, Associate Professor, University of California Riverside
Tanya Nieri, Associate Professor, UC Riverside
Objective: Latinx families and their children make up one of the largest and fastest growing ethnic groups in the U.S. With the recent restrictive immigration political context, many Latinxs report experiencing discrimination. Given this context, understanding how Latinx families engage their children on issues about race and help them build their capacity to negotiate such environments is critical. Ethnic-racial socialization (ERS) is a parenting practice that involves both verbal and non-verbal messages on the meaning of race and ethnicity. Children learn about inter-racial or inter-ethnic interactions and learn skills to protect themselves from the harmful effects of discrimination. Another critical element of the ERS process involves teaching children about their cultural heritage. Through the ERS process, children can learn about their own culture, how to interact with diverse populations, and understand differences among groups. Common ERS strategies include cultural socialization, preparation for bias, and promotion of mistrust. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review the literature on ERS in Latinx families to examine (1) ERS strategies used by parents and (2) associations between ERS and children’s social-behavioral health and academic outcomes.

Methods: Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systemic review of peer-reviewed articles using PsycINFO, Social Services Review, and PubMed was completed. Inclusion criteria included: ERS strategies, Latinx samples, inclusion of parents with children (0-18) or children (0-18). We identified 67 studies that met the inclusion criteria. We reviewed the studies’ methodology and their results on the factors that relate to the use of ERS, direct, mediating, and moderating effects of ERS on children’s outcomes, and factors that mediate or moderate the relation of ERS to children’s outcomes. Data extraction was completed by two team members using predefined data fields. We compared studies to identify major themes. We then synthesized the findings based on the major themes and subthemes we identified.

Results: The findings are organized around the major themes: Latinx parents’ engagement in ERS, predictors of ERS, ERS and discrimination, and children’s outcomes. Studies assessed parent’s use of single (n = 43) ERS strategy while others (n = 24) addressed multiple ERS strategies. A subset of papers qualitative illustrate parents approach to ERS. Predictors of parent’s use of ERS include foreign born, cultural pride, children factors and community factors. Several studies examine the relationship between discrimination and ERS; discrimination may heighten parent’s use of ERS and shape their approach (cultural socialization vs. preparation for bias). The existing research makes clear that ERS is consequential for Latinx children; it is related to a variety of outcomes including children’s ethnic identity development, academic adjustment, and mental and behavioral health. However, the effects are conditional on several parent and child factors and inconsistent across ERS strategies.

Conclusion: We discuss gaps in the current body of knowledge and identify pathways for future research. Findings have implications for practitioners, as ERS is a strategy that may help to mitigate the effect of discrimination on children. We provide specific examples of how ERS can be incorporated into SW practice with immigrant families.