Methods: Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted with Black emerging adults (n = 44) in St. Louis, Missouri. Utilizing a grounded theory approach, a thematic analysis of the focus group and cognitive interview transcripts were conducted to identify key items to be added to the Classes of Racism Frequency of Racial Experiences (CRFRE) measure. Three content experts assessed the face and content validity of survey items. Computer assisted surveys were conducted to pilot the modified CRFRE with a sample of Black emerging adults (n = 300), and confirmatory factor analyses and structural paths were used to examine the factorial and construct validity of the modified CRFRE.
Results: Participant’s qualitative data and suggestions from content experts resulted in the development of 16 additional CRFRE survey items regarding exposure to perceived racism-based police violence across three domains (victim, witness in person, and seen in the media). The modified CRFRE measure showed factorial and construct validity, internal reliability, and measurement invariance between males and females.
Conclusions and Implications: This study advances our epidemiological methodology for quantifying exposure to perceived racism-based police violence. Future research is necessary to assess the prevalence of exposure to perceived racism-based police violence and associated mental and behavioral outcomes for Black emerging adults in the US.