Methods: Data for this study come from a nationally representative sample of SUD treatment centers in the National Treatment Center Study (NTCS). These data were collected through two waves of on-site interviews conducted between 2009 and 2013 (N=372) with treatment center directors. Using the second wave, the independent variable, criminal justice referrals, was a continuous count-based measure of past-year referrals from DUI courts and other legal system sources (i.e., probation and parole). The moderating variable, public-sourced funding, was a binary measure identifying centers with a majority of past-year total operating funds from Medicaid/Medicare, grants, and other federal/state/local sources. The dependent variable, wraparound service provision, was created by indexing nine separate dichotomous measures of wraparound services offered. Controlling for the average age, race/ethnicity, and gender for each SUD treatment facility, a multivariate linear regression examined both main effects and the interaction of justice referrals and public-sourced funding using SAS software.
Results: The main effects model showed significant relationships for justice referrals (B= -0.11, p < .05) and public-sourced funding (B= 0.17, p < .01). The model also showed that percentage of racial/ethnic minorities (B= 0.14, p < .05) in a center’s caseload was associated with more wraparound service provision. Further, a significant non-linear relationship was found for percentage of women (B= -0.45, p < .01), where center caseloads with 80% women or higher were associated with more wrapround services. However, the interaction term between justice referrals and public-sourced center funding was not statistically significant (p < .36).
Conclusions and Implications: Findings from this study suggests that justice referred SUD clients receive fewer wraparound services. Additionally, centers that receive majority of funding from public sources are more likely to offer a wider range of wraparound services. Future research should seek to disentangle organizational-level factors that influence wraparound service provision for justice-involved SUD clients. For justice-involved individuals with SUDs, wraparound services can aid reintegration back into the community through treatment of co-occurring problems. This work also benefits social workers and treatment providers as organizational collaborations with service providers and measures to improve accountability for wraparound service provision are needed.