Methods: This study utilized a publicly available global dataset: Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (N=10,019). The dependent variable, means of trafficking, included debt bondage, taking earnings, threatening, psychological abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, false promise, psychoactive substances, restricting movement, restricting medical care, excessive working hours, threatening through law enforcement, withholding necessities, and withholding documents. The independent variables, demographic characteristics, included age (child/adult), gender (male/female), and regions of exploitation (Eastern Europe, Central and Western Europe, South Asia, East Asia, North Africa, East Africa, America). Associations between variables were analyzed through binary logistic regression techniques using SPSS V26.
Results: Majority were adults (71.6%), females (82.0%), and last exploited in America (72.1%). Means of trafficking were non-mutually exclusive and distributed with the lowest percentage (7.8%) in experiencing threat of law enforcement and highest in psychological abuse (48.4%). They also varied considerably by demographic characteristics. Children had a higher probability of experiencing sexual abuse than adults. Males had a higher probability of experiencing taking of earning, false promise, excessive working hours, and withholding of necessities than females. Victims exploited in Eastern Europe had a higher probability of experiencing all means of trafficking except psychoactive substances compared to those exploited in America. Those exploited in South Asia had a higher probability of experiencing taking of earning, threats, false promise, excessive working hours, and withholding of documents. Those in East Asia had a higher probability of experiencing sexual abuse, false promise, restriction in medical care, excessive working hours, and withholding of necessities and documents. Those in Central and Western Europe had a higher probability of experiencing debt bondage, taking of earning, threats, false promise, restriction in movement and medical care, excessive working hours, and withholding of documents. Those in Northern Africa had a higher probability of experiencing all except debt bondage, sexual abuse, and psychoactive substances. Those in Eastern African had a higher probability of experiencing taking of earning, physical abuse, and false promise.
Conclusions and Implications: Findings indicated age- and gender-tailored and region-specific practice and policy are needed. Victims of trafficking are known to experience adverse physical and behavioral health outcomes, such as pain, depression, trauma, and substance abuse. The findings of this study can inform development of victim profiles, allowing for further development of profile-specific rehabilitation services. Strengthening or initiating new policy measures by identifying means of trafficking as serious violation in human rights violation in addition to exploitation norms can assist in preventing and protecting the victims.