Methods: 14 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with gay Latino sexual assault survivors from six cities in the United States, in Spanish and/or English. 4 self-identified as Black Latino men. All interviews were audio-recorded and were and transcribed verbatim. Grounded theory methodology was utilized and data analysis consistent with grounded theory methodology was utilized. NVIVO10 was utilized to analyze the data. Men were debriefed and provided with resources at the conclusion of the interview.
Findings: Nine factors were identified as barriers to reporting sexual assault. Racism and homophobia were not always identified as barriers, but they played a role in other barriers such as: being believed, being blamed, and not be taken seriously, and a lack of gay friendly services. Eight negative repercussions were identified among men who did reporting being sexually assaulted to reporting authorities. All of the men who reported being sexually assaulted to reporting authorities experienced racism and/or homophobia, and some were subjected to physical and verbal assaulted based on their marginalized identities. Men were denied basic health services by medical care providers, even when men requested such services.
Conclusion and Implications: Gay Latino and/or Black sexual assault survivors cited racism and/or homophobia as a barrier and many experienced both when reporting having been sexually assaulted to reporting authorities. There is a need for culturally responsive, evidence-based, and trauma-informed health care services to be provided to gay Latino sexual assault survivors that are validating and respectful of their multiple marginalized identities. Social workers and other health care providers should engage with gay Latino sexual assault survivors in a manner that is culturally congruent and provide them with resources and services that are responsive to their race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation, in order to achieve racial and social justice.