Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizes two datasets. One on awareness and utilization of resources for SVSH, collected through an online survey (N=1208) across all 10 University of California (UC) campuses. Secondly, we also used a subset of the interview data (N=23) from the Double Jeopardy Study, which uses a mixed-method approach including surveys and semi-structured interviews, to assess the interaction of SVSH, anti-Asian racism, and Xenophobia experienced by Asian students in UCs. Logistic regression, Pearson’s Chi-square test, and ANOVA were used to examine different survey outcomes, and thematic qualitative coding was used to analyze the interview data.
Results: Findings indicate Asian (OR=0.56, p=0.000<0.001) and LatinX (OR=0.57, p=0.001<0.001) students are less likely to know about the responsibilities of Title IX compared to White students when controlling for their degree programs and sexual orientations. Asian students had less trust in Title IX and CAPS, while LatinX students had less trust in UCPD compared to White students. Asian students were less likely to use on-campus resources (OR=0.33, p=0.002<0.001), and to disclose their SVSH experience compared to White students. No such differences were found between LatinX and White students. For those Asian students who did not disclose their SVSH experience, the top three reasons were not thinking the experience was serious enough (21%), did not know where to go (13%), and felt embarrassed and guilty (13%). The supplemental interview data showed that Asian students’ experiences and perceptions of SVSH are heavily influenced by the cultural “taboo” of sexuality, and the campus climate was perceived as not tailored nor supportive to Asian students.
Implications: Our findings recommended universities improve awareness, knowledge, and trust of SVSH resources among racial minority students. Programs on campus that predominantly serve Asian and LatinX populations should be equipped with more tailored training materials, which should include resources besides Title IX, CAPS, and UCPD to increase student knowledge of additional off-campus resources they may feel more comfortable accessing. Moreover, because Asian students indicated a reduced disclosure and heightened stigmatization of SVSH, the list of resources should contain information geared toward destigmatizing SVSH. Lastly, the underlying mechanisms of the reduced disclosure among Asian students is a potential area for future research.