This study tested the contributions of minority stress to PTSD symptoms independent of occupational stress (i.e., combat exposure and MST) using a four generalized linear models predicting (1) PTSD symptoms, (2) re-experiencing, (3) avoidance, and (4) hypervigilance. In the first generalized linear model predicting PTSD symptoms; identification with a non-white racial or ethnic group was the strongest contributor in the model. In the second model, combat exposure is statistically significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms associated with PTSD as is identification with a non-white race. When predicting avoidance associated with PTSD, violence and harassment related to sexual minority identity was the most significant predictor. In the final model, predicting hypervigilance associated with PTSD, identification with a non-white racial or ethnic group is the most significant predictor.
The findings of the current study support the need to address intersectionality of identities in working with sexual minority populations, especially as they relate to race and ethnicity. We found that identification with a non-white race/ethnicity was the strongest predictor of PTSD symptomatology. There has been some criticism of theories explaining disproportionality among marginalized communities that do not take into account the intersection of different identities. This study suggests that in work with veterans intersectionality may be a key factor.