*****noted as presenting author

**Background/Purpose**: Theory, not statistics, should be primary in social work research. It is often assumed that sample size or statistical techniques alone can meaningfully identify the non-random variation in outcomes of interest and account for noise. This assumption frequently underlies use of OLS multiple regression and drives practices such as independent variable inclusion/exclusion based on assessment of correlation with the dependent variable. Statistically complex techniques are not substantially different in this regard.

**Methods**: I carry out two atheoretical, but statistically sound ‘studies.’ Study 1 assesses random variables in multiple regression models and study 2 assesses random variables for Granger-causal relationships to industrial production in the U.S. In study 1 (n=1,000), I randomly generated 20 variables with common value ranges: a dependent variable Y with values in the range 1-100; X_{1-4} (range 1-100); X_{5-14} (range 1-10); and X_{15-19} (range 0-1). I first carry out a ‘rigorously’ controlled OLS regression. Then, to avoid ‘overcontrolling, problems with available degrees of freedom, modeling irrelevant X-variables, and statistical artifacts,’ I evaluated two reduced variable models only retaining X-variables below p>.50 and p>.20 significance thresholds. In study 2, I use Federal Reserve data on U.S. industrial production presented in a time series across (n=368) quarter-years. Adding to this dataset, I randomly generate variables X_{1-10} (range 1-10). Utilizing this new dataset, I employ vector auto-regressive models of time-lagged effects and Wald tests to ascertain the presence of Granger-causality (i.e., showing that X preceded Y, X predicts future values of Y, and bidirectionality is ruled out).

**Results**: In study 1, the full model of X_{1-19} was marginally significant (F>0.12). We can have approximately 88 percent confidence that this suite of variables predicts Y better than the mean. X_{5} and X_{18} were statistically significant (p=.076; p=.001) factors and X_{15} was marginally significant (p=.105). These relationships to Y held in bivariate regressions. Each of the reduced variable models, was statistically significant (F>0.049 and F>0.0004 respectively) and X_{5} and X_{18 }remained significant. In study 2, I found that among other significant relationships, time-lagged values of X_{10} significantly (p=0.03) predicted industrial production. However, industrial production did not significantly predict X_{10} (p=0.22) and the role of other variables was at least partially accounted for, establishing and surpassing Granger-causal criteria.

**Conclusion/Implications**: ‘Best fit’ models show that X_{5}, X_{15}, and X_{18} alone predict Y. X_{5} and X_{18} are independently significant predictors and thus ‘are good candidate targets for intervention’ aimed at improving Y outcomes. In modeling U.S. industrial production, we find that X_{10 }is a Granger-causal factor, meaning that leveraging it could partially alleviate the U.S. unemployment burden. These results and implications are all well-grounded statistically, but clearly fallacious, as the variables have no substantive meaning and are significantly associated (even ‘causally’) by chance. Even among random variables where the likelihood of statistical significance is reduced, statistically significant but spurious findings occur easily. These results highlight that careful and theory-driven social work research is vital to producing sound policy and practice recommendations.