This cross-sectional study assessed a convenience sample of 282 men in residential treatment at baseline using self-report standardized measures (e.g. CES-Depression; GAD-7; PC-PTSD; BSI; URICA). The mean age was 42 years (SD =11); 73% were U.S. born, with 54.6% Latino. Over 50% reported severe anxiety, 72% screened in for depression, and 40% met PTSD criteria. Significantly, 75.9% reported perpetrating physical, psychological or sexual abuse over their lifetime with current or past partners and 78.4% reported victimization by a partner. Multiple GLMs compared the two groups.
On demographic variables, the only significant difference between the Latino (n=154) and non-Latino group was education. On mental health, while there were no differences between groups on anxiety, depression, self-esteem and overall brief mental health symptoms, the Latino group reported significantly less PTSD symptoms and perceived discrimination. The Latino group had lower AUDIT scores, but no other differences existed for frequency and consequences of alcohol use. On drug usage, the Latino group were less likely to smoke PCP/Angel dust, use amphetamines, hallucinogens or sedatives, but more frequently used drugs in the past 6 months; there were no differences on overall number of types of drugs used over the lifetime. The groups did not differ on perceived social supports, spirituality and motivation to change, or on current or lifetime levels of IPV perpetration and victimization.
Hierarchical multiple regression tested whether demographic factors, alcohol use severity, type and frequency of drugs used, mental health factors and frequency of perceived discrimination predicted amount of lifetime IPV perpetration in the Latino group. The overall model was significant accounting for 29.1% of the variance, F(3, 122) = 9.82, p < .001. The lifetime number of types of drugs used, and the frequency of drugs used in the past 6 months increased the likelihood of IPV perpetration. Other predictors were non-significant.
The high rates of mental health problems, IPV perpetration and victimization in the overall and Latino sample reinforce the need for comprehensive assessments in treatment settings for co-occurring issues. Results support prior research that substance use is an associated risk factor for IPV perpetration and have implications for clinical practice. Future research need to further examine factors of culture and role expectations among the Latino populations in order to more fully address IPV perpetration and explore nuances in gender based violence.